By Emma Fawcett*
Haiti recently marked the five-year anniversary of the devastating 2010 earthquake and missed yet another deadline for reaching an agreement on the country’s long-overdue elections. On January 12, the parliament was effectively dissolved as the terms of all but 10 senators expired. Without quorum or a new electoral law, President Martelly now rules by decree. Many in the opposition, whose protests in the last several months forced the resignation of Prime Minister Lamothe, now also seek Martelly’s resignation. Martelly has asked protesters to be patient, but some claim the electoral impasse is part of the president’s larger strategy for consolidating his power. The U.S. Embassy in Haiti has expressed commitment to continue working with him and “whatever legitimate Haitian government institutions remain,” and hopes that Martelly will use his “powers responsibly to organize inclusive, credible and transparent elections.” U.S. Vice President Joe Biden spoke with Martelly by phone, reiterating support for his administration and acknowledging his “efforts to work with the Haitian parliament and political parties to resolve outstanding issues.” On Sunday, the UN Security Council concluded its three-day visit by urging politicians to work together to ensure elections can proceed, and refrained from commenting on whether the planned cuts to UN peacekeeping forces would take place in June.
Although there is continued handwringing over how $13.5 billion pledged in earthquake relief has been spent, there are some signs of economic growth. Capacity in the apparel and hospitality sectors has increased dramatically, priming the pump for further private-sector development, but the results to date are weak. Caracol Industrial Park (in the northeast) and the Lafito Industrial Free Zone (outside Port-au-Prince) are moving forward, though Caracol has thus far generated just 5,000 of the 65,000 jobs it was expected to create. Minister of Tourism Stephanie Villedrouin has pushed tourism hard to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). Tourism was a natural outgrowth of earthquake recovery: hotels rooms were urgently needed first for relief workers, now for engineers and businesspeople, and eventually (Haitians hope) for tourists. Pétionville, located in the hills above Port-au-Prince and home to much of the country’s elite, has received a remarkable facelift. It now boasts several renovated or newly-constructed international class hotels, though guests remain elusive. Some of the tent cities have been cleared. In Jalousie, one of the slums above Pétionville, concrete homes were painted in bright tropical shades, designed to evoke the work of Haitian artist Préfète Duffau. (Critics of the project pointed out the neighborhood has more pressing needs than cans of paint, and wryly noted that while Port-au-Prince’s hillsides are covered in slums, only those overlooking Pétionville’s wealthiest residents received cosmetic treatment.)
Despite the political uncertainties and stalled reconstruction efforts, there is a sense among Haitian and international private-sector actors that moving forward is “now or never.” Many point to Martelly’s unprecedented focus on attracting FDI and willingness to create incentive frameworks. In field interviews, investors in Haiti and neighboring countries speak of hope that the country’s natural, cultural, and historical resources will make it a viable destination – as well as hope that U.S. and other foreign backing continues to expand the apparel and tourism sectors. There are enormous challenges ahead, to be sure, compounded by the political crisis and potential for instability. The government-led strategic planning process has been described as “opaque” and “accelerated” without much room for consultation with either the private sector or local communities. Carnival Cruise Lines’ plans to build a new port on Ǐle de la Tortue have become mired in land tenure issues. And inclusive growth – strategically targeted and yet expansive enough to lift Haitians out of poverty – will be hard to come by without improved institutional capacity, made all the more difficult by the events of the last three weeks.
January 29, 2015
* Emma Fawcett is a doctoral candidate in International Relations at American University.